Behavioral Observation Research Interactive Software (BORIS) user guide

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BORIS is an easy-to-use event logging software for video/audio coding and live observations. BORIS is a free and open-source software available for GNU/Linux, Windows and Mac OS X.

version 7.1.3

www.boris.unito.it

Install BORIS

BORIS can be installed following instructions on the BORIS site at download page

Linux

BORIS is available only for 64-bit systems.

The VLC media player must be installed on your system.

You can also run BORIS from sources. See the Linux download page for details about the dependencies to install.

Microsoft-Windows

BORIS is available for Windows in 32-bit and 64-bit versions. Check your OS before downloading.

Two versions are available: BORIS Setup and BORIS Portable

The BORIS Setup will install BORIS on your system (the default install path is located in your home directory, you do not need administration rights to install BORIS).

The BORIS Portable will NOT install BORIS on your system but will run from a directory (find and launch boris.exe). Use this version if you want to test a new version of BORIS for example.

Mac OS

BORIS is available for Mac OS only in 64-bit version (from >= 10.8)

VirtualBox virtual appliance

If you want to try BORIS without installing it you can download the VirtualBox virtual appliance from the BORIS site. In this case you must first install the VirtualBox virtualizer from Oracle (released under GPL 2).

Launch BORIS

Start BORIS by clicking on its icon. For launching BORIS from sources see the BORIS web site. When launching BORIS for the first time it may take some time to show up. Please be patient!

The main window of BORIS will show up. The toolbar with media player commands is disabled for now.

The BORIS main window

Warning

On Mac OS X 10.9 and above, launching can be stopped according to the Security & Privacy settings of your computer. They can be changed opening System Preferences… > Security & Privacy > General and selecting the option Anywhere in the frame Allow apps downloaded from. Alternatively you can repeat the operation right-clicking on the BORIS icon and then clicking Open in the following two dialog boxes.

Warning

On Microsoft-Windows, launching can be stopped by a `Security warning: The publisher can not be verified. Are you sure you want to run this software?` Click the `Run` button to launch BORIS.

At the first launch, BORIS will ask you to allow the automatically check for new version. Internet access is required for this feature. If you choose Yes BORIS will check for new version about every 15 days. This option can be changed on the Preferences window (See general preferences)

You can launch BORIS from command line by specifying the project file to open as the first argument.

Create a new project with BORIS

The BORIS project file is the container for all information related to the project. It contains the ethogram, the independent variables, the subjects definition, the behaviors coding maps, the converters and all observations data. The save menu option (File > Save project or Save project as …) will save the project in a path in your local file system. You can also activate the automatic backup feature (see Preferences).

Note

It is VERY important to do regular backups of your project files to prevent the lost of data. Software can be reinstalled but your data could quite possibly be lost for ever.

BORIS allows creating an unlimited number of projects but only one project can be opened at a time.

A video tutorial about creating a project is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I97Dny5hFOE

To create a new project, under the menu File , select New project. You can determine your project name by writing in the Project name field in the Information tab. Once the project will be saved, the Project file path will show the full path to your project file. Date will automatically set on the current date and time, but you can alternatively set this info on your media date and time, or whatever you prefer. Description can host all the relevant information about your project, can be also left empty. Time format can be alternatively set to seconds or to hh:mm:ss.mss. This choice can be changed at anytime under File > Preferences (for MAC users, BORIS > Preferences) > Default project time format.

New project

Set an ethogram

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethogram for ethogram definition.

Switching to the Ethogram tab, you can alternatively:

Ethogram configuration

Set your ethogram from scratch

Clicking on the Add behavior button you can add a new row in the Ethogram table and behavior type will be automatically set to Point event.

The cells with gray background can not be directly edited. You must double-click on them and then select a value.

Behavior types

2 types of behaviors can be defined. Double-click on the cell and select the type of behavior:

  • Point event behavior when the behavior has no duration. The behavior will be coded by pressing the defined keyboard key (see below) or by clicking to the corresponding row in the Ethogram table.
  • State event behavior when the behavior has a duration. The behavior start and stop will be coded by pressing the defined keyboard key (see below) or by clicking to the corresponding row in the Ethogram table. These behaviors must have a start event and a stop event.

You can switch between State event and Point event at your convenience with a double-click on the Behavior type cell. You can also add a Coding map to either a State event (State event with coding map) or a Point event (Point event with coding map; see the “Coding map” section for details).

An existing behavior can be duplicated using the Clone behavior button. Its code have then to be changed. On a selected behavior, click on the Remove behavior button to remove. The Remove all behaviors button will clear the Ethogram table. Both the above-mentioned operations must be confirmed when prompted.

Behavioral codes (Code column) can be sorted alphabetically by checking the Alphabetical order checkbox. Alternatively they can be sorted manually by using the Move up and Move down buttons.

Categories of behaviors

Defining categories of behaviors can be usefull for the analysis of coded events (for example the time budget analysis). Click the Behavioral categories button and add a the categories of behaviors. Behaviors can then be included or not in a defined category.

Categories of behaviors
Set keys and codes

For each behavior you have to set a keyboard key (Key column) that will be then used to code the behavioral events. You can choose whether you want to set a unique key for each behavior or use the same key for more than one behavior. In the case you set the same key for more than a behavior, BORIS will pause your coding and ask which of the behavior you want to record. From version 7 the keys are case-sensitive.

If your project was created with a previous version of BORIS (< v.7) you can use the Convert keys to lower case to convert all keys to lower case otherwise you will have to code your observation using upper case key.

Important

If you open a project file created with a version older than v.7 BORIS will ask you to convert the upper case behavior and subject keys to lower case.

Important

Do not use the / and * keys! They are reserved for the frame-by-frame mode.

In the Code column, you have to add a unique code for each behavior. Duplicated codes are not accepted and BORIS will warn in red about duplicates on the bottom left of the Ethogram tab. The code can be an alphanumeric string (which must not include the pipe character | ).

The Category column allow you to include the behavior to a predefined category.

The Description of your behavior is optional. The Description column can be useful to add information about a specific behavior, its characteristics (e.g. to standardise observation between different users) or to refer to external information (e.g. reference to a previous ethogram).

The following three columns (Modifiers, Exclusion, Coding map) cannot be edited from the Ethogram table.

Set the modifiers

Modifiers can be used to add attributes to a behavior. A single behavior can have two or more modifiers attached (e.g. “play” may have “solitary” or “social” as modifiers). The use of modifiers can be convenient to significantly reduce the number of keys and simplify the behavioral coding.

3 types of modifiers are available: Single selection, Multiple selection and Numeric. Single selection modifiers allows the observer to select only one modifier in the list. Multiple selection allows to select more modifiers from the list. Numeric allows to input a numeric data.

In BORIS modifiers can also be added in different modifier sets [e.g. “play, social” may have a modifier set (#1) for “brothers” and another (#2) for “sisters”]. In the case of using sets of modifiers, you can select one/more modifier for each set.

To add modifiers to a behavior, you need to double-click the Modifiers cell corresponding to the behavior you want to add the modifiers to. The following window will show up:

modifiers configuration

Click the Add a set of modifiers button:

modifiers configuration

Set a name for the new modifiers set by typing it in the Set name edit box. Setting a modifiers’ set name is not mandatory.

Select the modifier type using the Modifier type combo box. You can choose between Single selection, Multiple selection and Numeric

  • the Single selection type will allow you to select only one modifier for the current behavior.
  • the Multiple selection type will allow you to select one or more modifiers for the current behavior.
  • the Numeric type will allow you to input a number. For example a distance of interaction.

Within a set of modifiers, you can add a modifier by writing the modifier in the Modifier edit box. You can choose a shortcut (one character - case sensitive) to this modifier (optional). Then press the right-arrow button to add the new modifiers to the set.

modifiers configuration

To modify a modifier, select it and press the left-arrow button, edit the modifier and press the right-arrow button.

A modifier can be removed by pressing the Remove modifier button.

After adding all modifiers the window will appear like this:

modifiers configuration

In case of Single selection or Multiple selection all defined subjects can be added as modifiers using the Add subjects as modifiers button. This can help in case of coding the interactions between subjects for example.

The modifier position into the modifiers’ set can be manually set using the Move modifier up and Move modifier down buttons.

You can add and/or remove sets using the buttons Add set of modifiers and Remove set of modifiers.

The position of a modifiers’ set can be customized (using the Move set left and Move set right buttons)

Modifiers can not contain the following characters: (|),`~!

Example of a multiple selection modifiers set:

modifiers configuration

Many values can be selected together.

Example of 2 sets of modifiers:

modifiers configuration modifiers configuration

Click OK to save modifiers in the Ethogram table.

Set the exclusion matrix

The occurrence of an event (State or Point) can exclude the occurrence of a state event. This can be set using the Behaviors exclusion matrix window, which can be opened clicking on the Exclusion matrix button. BORIS will ask for including Point events or not and a new Exclusion matrix window will open.

Exclusive behavior may be selected by checking on the corresponding checkbox in the automatically-generated matrix. We suggest to work on the Exclusion matrix when all the behaviors have been added to your ethogram.

All behaviors can be excluded by a particular behavior by selecting the corresponding entire row (click on the row header of the behavior) and by clicking on the Check selected button. You can also uncheck all behaviors by selecting the Uncheck selected button.

Example of an exclusion matrix:

Exclusion matrix tool

For example in the previous figure, the Alert behavior will exclude the following behaviors: Allogroom, Breed, Carry objects, Chase

During the observation, the excluding event will stop all the current excluded state events one millisecond before the occurence of the event.

Import an ethogram from an existing project

Behaviors within an ethogram can be imported from an existing BORIS project (.boris) using the Import behaviours from a BORIS project button. BORIS will ask to select a BORIS project file and whether imported behaviors should replace or be appended to the Ethogram table. Imported behaviors will retain all the previously defined behavior parameters (namely Behavior type, Key, Code, Description, Modifiers and Exclusion information).

Import an ethogram from a JWatcher global definition file (.gdf)

Behaviors can be imported from a JWatcher global definition file (.gdf) using the Import from JWatcher button. BORIS will ask to select a JWatcher file (.gdf) and whether imported behaviors should replace or be appended to the Ethogram table. Behavior type and exclusion information for the behaviours imported from JWatcher have to be redefined.

Import an ethogram from a plain text file

Behaviors can be imported from a plain text file using the Import from text file button. The fields must be separated by TAB, comma (,) or semicolomn (;). All rows must contain the same number of fields.

The fields will be interpreted as:

  • field #1: event type (point or state)
  • field #2: key (case insensitive)
  • field #3: code (must be unique)
  • field #4: behavior category (empty if no category)
  • field #5: description (optional)

All fields after the 5th will be ignored.

BORIS will ask to select a plain text file (by default: *.txt *.csv *.tsv) and whether imported behaviors should replace or be appended to the Ethogram table. The missing information for the behaviours imported from text file have to be redefined.

Export the ethogram

The entire ethogram can be exported in various formats (TSV, CSV, XLS, ODS, HTML). See File > Edit project > Ethogram tab > Export ethogram

Define the subjects

Subjects definition

BORIS allow coding behaviors for different subjects within a single observation. The Subject table allows specifying subjects using a Key (e.g. the k on your keyboard), Subject name (e.g. “Kanzi”), Description (e.g. male, born October 28 - 1980). In this case, pressing n will set “Nina” as the focal subject of the behavioural coding. Pressing n again will deselect “Nina” and set to “no focal subject”. The definition of one or more subjects is not mandatory. Addition, removal and sorting of the subjects follows the same logic of the Ethogram table (see Set your ethogram from scratch for info). The subjects can also be imported from an existing BORIS project using the Import Subjects from a BORIS project.

From version 7 the keys are case-sensitive.

If your project was created with a previous version of BORIS (< v.7) you can use the Convert keys to lower case to convert all keys to lower case otherwise you will have to code your observation using upper case key.

Important

If you open a project file created with a version older than v.7 BORIS will ask you to convert the upper case behavior and subject keys to lower case.

Define the Independent variables

Independent variables

BORIS allows adding information about the observation using Independent variables. This can be used to specify factors that may influence the behaviors (e.g. group composition, temperature, weather conditions) but will not change during a single observation within a project. Each independent variable can be defined by a Label (e.g. weather), a Description (e.g. weather conditions), a Type (text, numeric, value from set or timestamp).

The values of a set are defined in the Set of values column separating the available values with a comma (,). Please note that the first value of the set will be selected by default. It should be useful to define a NA value as first value of every set.

The values for the independent variables will be asked when creating a new observation. Addition, removal and sorting of the independent variables follows the same logic of the Ethogram table (see Set your ethogram from scratch for info). The independent variables can also be imported from an existing BORIS project using the Import Variables from a BORIS project.

Example of independent variable defined as “set of values”

Independent variables

The predefined value must be contained in the set of value.

Observations’ tab

The Observations table in BORIS shows information about all the previous observations within a project. A selected “Observation” can be removed using the “Remove observation” button (you will be prompted for confirmation). This operation cannot be undone and deleted observations cannot be recovered once the project is saved. The Observations table shows four columns id Date Description Media.

Converters’ tab

Converters are used for plotting external data when the timestamp values are not expressed in seconds. Converters can be written by the user, loaded from file or loaded from the repository of the BORIS web site (http://www.boris.unito.it/static/converters.json).

Converters tab

Load converters from BORIS web site

Click Load converters from BORIS repository and select the converters to be added to your project.

Converters selection from repository Converters tab

Writing a converter

See Converters for external data values

The converters loaded in your project can be then selected for converting timestamp (or other values) in external data file (See converters)

Open an existing project with BORIS

IMPORTANT

Due to changes in modifiers format all the projects created with v. 4+ will not be suitable for previous version of BORIS. The v. 4 will open projects created with previous version and convert them. A copy of your old project will be kept.

To open an existing BORIS project, selct the menu File > Open project. A BORIS project file is a container for all information related to a set of observations as the ethogram, the independent variables, and the subjects. BORIS allows creating an unlimited number of projects but only one project can be opened at a time.

Observations

Create a new observation

A video tutorial about making an observation is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CKeBITCICXc

To create a new observation you must first Create a new project with BORIS or Open an existing project with BORIS.

Clicking on Observations > New observation will show the New observation window.

New observation window

This window allow adding various observation data:

  • a mandatory Observation id (must be unique across all observations in the open project);
  • Date, which will be automatically set on the current date and time, but you can alternatively set this info on your media date and time, or whatever you prefer.
  • Description, which can host all the relevant information about your observation, but can be also left empty.
  • Independent variables (e.g. to specify factors that may influence the behaviors but will not change during the observation within a project). See the independent variables section for details.
  • Time offset. BORIS allow specifying a time offset that can be added or subtracted from the media timecode.

You must then indicate if you want to make an observation based on pre-recorded media (audio / video) or a live observation.

Live observation

During the live observation BORIS will show you a timer that will be used for recording time for coded events.

Choose the Live tab to make a live observation.

New live observation

In the above tab you can select a time for Scan sampling observation. In this case the timer will stop at every time offset you indicated and all the coded events will have the same time value.

Start the observation

Click the Start button to begin the live observation or Save to save it in the observations list.

The main window during a live observation will look like this:

_images/observation_live.png

See the live coding section to start coding.

Media based observation

Click on the Media tab to make an observation based on one or more media files.

Media files tab

The Media tab contains 2 tabs: Media files and Data files.

Click the Media files tab and add one or more media files using the Add media or Add media without path button. The Add media without path button allow you to not store the path of your media file(s) in the BORIS project file. In this case the media file(s) must be in the same directory than the BORIS project file to be found. This option is useful if you are working with various computers on the same project file(s).

If you want to remove the media file paths of an entire project see Removing path of media files.

The Add all media from directory and Add all media from dir without path allow to add all media files found in a directory to the playlist.

Information about the selected media file will be extracted and displayed in the media list: media file path, media duration, number of frames by second (FPS), the presence of a video stream, the presence of an audio stream .

Media files tab

The dropdown list in the first column allow you to choose a player (for a maximum of 8). If you want to observer more media files simultaneously you must use consecutive players (starting from 1). See example below:

Media files tab

The Remove media button can be used to remove all the selected media files.

All the media types reported at http://www.videolan.org/vlc/features.html can be played in BORIS. The media queued in the Media file paths will be played sequentially. This means that an event occurring at time tx in the media file queued as second (e.g. second_video.mp4) in the playlist will be scored as happening at time t1 + tx (where t1 is the duration of the first media file, e.g. first_video.mp4).

Spectrogram visualization

BORIS allow you to visualize the sound spectrogram during the media observation. Activate the Visualize spectrogram check box. BORIS will ask you to generate the spectrograms for all media files loaded in the first player.

spectrogram generation

The spectrogram visualization will be synchonized to the media position during the observation.

spectrogram visualization
Close current behavior between videos

This option is disabled for now.

External data files

Warning

At this time only 2 external data can be plotted with your media file

You can select one or more external data files to be plotted synchronously with your media. Click the Data files tab and use the Add data file button to select a data file.

External data file tab

The data files must be plain text files with at least 2 columns separated by comma or TAB. One column must contain a timestamp that will be used to synchronize the plot with the media. The sampling rate can be variable.

Example of a plain text data file with 5 columns separated by comma (,):

Display,X Pos,Y Pos,Start Time (secs),Pupil Diameter
1,864,509,549.233,0.00295773451216519
1,863,505,549.25,0.00281810853630304
1,863,503,549.266,0.00287826382555068
1,861,502,549.283,0.0030536837875843
1,858,501,549.3,0.00308083021081984
1,856,499,549.316,0.00306266942061484
1,854,499,549.333,0.00305776367895305
[...]

In the above example the 4th column contains the timestamp and the 5th the value to be plotted.

Input the index of the column containing the timestamp and the index of the column containing the value to be plotted. The two indices must be separated by a comma (,). Click OK to close the window.

Selection of columns (time, value)

A new row will be added in the data files table.

_images/external_data_file_1.png

You can modify/complete the following parameters by directly typing in the table cells:

  • Columns to plot
  • Plot title: the title of the plot
  • Variable name
  • Converters: Used if the timestamp is not expressed in seconds (see below for details)
  • Time interval: The time interval that will be plotted (in seconds)
  • Start position: the start position of data for synchronisation with the media (in seconds)
  • Substract first value: if the timestamp does not start with a 0 value you can choose to substract the first value to all timestamp values.
  • Color: the color of the color

You can check if the data from file can be correctly plotted by using the Show plot button. If the data are compatible you will see a plot otherwise you will obtain a message with an explanation.

For now only 2 values can be plotted synchronously with your media file. The values can come from the same file or from two different files.

During the observation tha values you have selected in external data files will be plotted synchronously with your media file.

Observation with 2 values plotted from external data files: Temperature and salinity
Converters

If the values in the timestamp column are not expessed in seconds (like 12.45) but in another format (HH:MM:SS, MM:SS, ISO8601 2018-01-18T12:31:40Z …) you must use a converter that will convert the current format in seconds.

See the Converters’ tab in the project configuration: converters tab

A double-click on the converters cell will allow you to select a converter for each column to be plotted

_images/converter_selection.png _images/converter_selected.png

Use the Show plot button to verify if your external data can be plotted without problem. The Close plot button will close the plot window.

_images/external_data_show_plot.png

Converters can also be used to convert values that are not time value.

Example of a converter for inverting value:

OUTPUT = - float(INPUT)
Start the observation

Click the Start button to start coding. The Observation window will be closed and you’ll be transferred to the main BORIS window. If you do not want to start the observation click the Save button. The observation will be saved in the observations list.

The main window during the observation of a single media file will look like this:

_images/observation_1video.png

See the media coding section to start coding.

Observations list

The Observations > Observations list will show you all the observations contained in the current BORIS project.

The observations can be sorted by clicking in the desired column header (alphabetic order ascending or descending).

Observations list

The observations list can be filtered selecting a field and a condition in the drop-list boxes.

In the following example observations are filtered: only observations with description containing the In the pool subject are shown:

Observations list

Observations can be filtered with Independent variables values.

The following example displays only the observations that do not contain “Sunny” in the Weather independent variable :

Observations list

Observations with a value of Temperature independent variable between 18 and 22:

Observations list

Observations with a value of Visitors independent variable greater than 1000:

Observations list

Delete observations

The observations can be deleted from the project using the following procedure: File > Edit project > Observation’s tab

Select all observations to remove

Click the Remove selected observations button and confirm the deletion.

Please note that the deletion is irreversible.

Import observations from a project file

The Observations > Import observations option allows to import observations from a BORIS project file into the current project. Choose the project file and then the observations to import. BORIS will check if observations with same id are already existing in the current project. BORIS will also check if behaviors and/or subjects used in the imported observations are not defined in the current project.

Coding your media

When looking at the BORIS main window, the window title bar shows the Observation id - Project name - BORIS. The media (the first in the queue) will be loaded in the media player and paused.

Media based coding

Media controls are available in the toolbar

Media control toolbar

Key to the symbols:

  • List of observations
  • Play (become Pause when media is played)
  • Rewind reset your media at the beginning
  • Fast backward jumps for n seconds backward in your media (See general preferences to set n)
  • Fast forward jumps for n seconds forward in your media (See general preferences to set n)
  • Set the playback at speed 1x
  • Increase playback speed (See general preferences to set the step value)
  • Decrease playback speed (See general preferences to set the step value)
  • Jump to the previous media file
  • Jump to the next media file
  • Take a snapshot of current video or frame
  • Switch between VLC and frame-by-frame modes
  • Move on frame back (enabled in frame-by-frame mode)
  • Move one frame forward (enabled in frame-by-frame mode)
  • Close current observation

The media can be controlled by special keyboard keys:

  • Page Up key: switch to the next media
  • Page Down key: switch to the previous media
  • Up arrow key: jump forward in the current media
  • Down arrow key: jump backward in the current media
  • ESC: switch between VLC and frame-by-frame mode

Live observations

During a live observation the media control toolbar is disabled.

Press the Start live observation button to start your observation. If some events are already coded BORIS will ask you for deleting them.

A timer will be displayed. The events will be recorded in the events widget.

See the following screenshot.

live observation

Ethogram widget in the main window

Ethogram widget in main window

The Ethogram widget provide the user with the list of behaviors defined in the Ethogram. It can be used to record an event by double clicking on the corresponding row. The Key column indicates the keyboard key assigned to each behavior (if any). Pressing a key will record the corresponding behavior (that will appear in the Events widget).

The behaviors shown in the ethogram widget can be filtered:

Right-click on ethogram widget > Filter behaviors

Check/Uncheck single behaviors or double-click on the behavioral category

Filter behaviors in ethogram widget

Subjects widget in the main window

Subjects list widget in main window

The Subjects widget provide the user with the list of subjects defined in the Subject tab in the Project window. It can be used to add information about the focal subject on the recorded behaviors by double clicking on the corresponding row. When a subject is selected his/her name appears above the media player. The Key column indicates the keyboard key assigned to each subject (if any).

The subjects shown in the subjects widget can be filtered:

Right-click on subjects widget > Filter subjects

Check/Uncheck single subject

Filter subjects in subjects widget

The media player widgets

3 media players

The media position can be set using the horizontal slide bar. Each media player has its own audio volume control (the vertical slide bar on the right side of the player).

The organization of the various widget can be customized:

undocked widgets

The Events widget

Events widget

The Events widget shows all the recorded behaviors (events) with the following parameters (organized in columns):

  • time, the time at which the event occurred;
  • subject, the focal subject (if any);
  • code, the behavior code;
  • type, in case of a state event indicates whether the time corresponds to the start or to the stop.
  • modifier, indicates the modifier(s) that was(ere) selected (if any);
  • comment, is an open field where the user can add notes.

A tracking cursor (red triangle) will show the current event. This cursor can be positioned above the current event, see tracking cursor position option in Preferences window.

A double-click on a row will reposition the media player to the moment of the corresponding event. See Time offset for media reposition in Preferences window to customize the time offset for media repositioning.

Record an event

Once ready to begin your coding, you can start the media player using the Play button (or the Space bar). The behaviors can be recorded using the keyboard with the predefined keys, by double-clicking the corresponding row in the Ethogram table or by using the Coding pad (See coding pad).

Ethogram and subjects widgets

If the pressed key defines a single event, the corresponding event will be recorded in the Events table. In the case you have specified the same key for two (or more) events (e.g. key A in the figure below), BORIS will prompt you for the desired behavior.

Ask for modifiers

In the case you have specified modifiers (one or more sets), BORIS will prompt you for the desired modifier(s) if any (e.g. ball or opponent in the figure below). You can select the correct one using the mouse or the keyboard ( b key or o key)

Ask for modifiers

In the case your behavior type is a Point event with coding map or a State event with coding map, BORIS will show the Coding map window and will allow selecting the desired area(s). In case you click a part of the map in which two (or more) areas overlap, the corresponding codes will be recorded.

A recorded event can be edited (once selected) using the Observations > Edit event menu option. The resulting Edit event parameters allows modifying every parameter (e.g. time, subject, code, modifiers, and comment).

The Observations > Add event menu option allows adding a new event by specifying its time and the other parameters.

The Events widget context menu

Some functions are available in the Events widget context menu. Righ-click on the Events widget.

Events widget menu
Add event

This option allows adding a new event by specifying its time and the other parameters.

Edit selected event(s)

This option allows to edit the selected event(s). When many events are selected you have to choose the field to edit between Subject, Behavior and Comment. In this case the new value will apply to all selected events.

Edit many events
Edit time of selected event(s)

This option allows to add or subtract a time value (in seconds) to all selected events. For subtracting a value use a negative value.

Edit time of selected events
Copy events

This option allows to copy the selected events in the clipboard. The clipboard will contain the values of the selected events (except the type field) separated by a <TAB> character.

Example of clipboard content:

0.0 Himal   Tear    Branches
0.0 Nautilus        Tear    Branches
30.199      Himal   Tear    Branches
30.2        Himal   Locomotion      Walk
32.4        Himal   Locomotion      Walk
32.4        Nautilus        Tear    Branches
Paste events

This option allows to paste the clipboard content into the events widget. The clipboard must respect the format described in the previous section: 5 columns separated by <TAB> character.

Find in events

This option allows to search for a string in the various field of events. Select the fields to be searched. The find/replace operation can be restricted to the selected events.

Find in events
Find/Replace in events

This option allows to search for a string and replace it by a new value in the various field of events. Select the fields to be searched. The find operation can be restricted to the selected events.

Find / replace in events
Filter events

This option allows to filter the events by field value.

Filter events
Show all events

This option reverts the previous one and allows to visualize all coded events

Check state events

This option allows to check if the state events are PAIRED, if they have a START and a STOP occurences.

Delete selected events

This option allows

Delete all events

Fix unpaired state events

You can use the “Fix unpaired events” function to fix the state events without a STOP event.

Observations > Fix unpaired events (keyboard shortcut: CTRL+U)

The program will ask for a time at which insert the STOP events for all unpaired state events

This function can be run on a set of selected observations (when no observation is open). In this case the STOP events will be inserted at the end of observation.

Frame-by-frame mode

You can switch between the media player and the frame-by-frame mode using the dedicated button in the toolbar:

frame-by-frame_button

In frame-by-frame mode the video will stop playing and the user will visualize the video frame by frame.

Warning

Please note that MTS video files should be re-encoded to be used in frame-by-frame mode. Otherwise the extracted frames are not reliable.

You can move between frames by using the arrow keys in the toolbar (on the right) or by using keyboard special keys:

For the both modes (media player and frame-by-frame mode)

  • Page Up key: switch to the next media
  • Page Down key: switch to the previous media
  • Up arrow key: jump forward in the current media
  • Down arrow key: jump backward in the current media
  • ESC: switch between VLC and frame-by-frame mode

Only for the frame-by-frame mode

  • Left arrow key: go to the previous frame
  • Right arrow key: go to the next frame

If you have a numeric keypad you can use the following keys in alternative:

  • The key / will allow you to view the previous frame
  • The key * will allow you to view the next frame

To return in the media player mode press again the frame-by-frame button in the toolbar.

The frame can be resized before visualization. See the frame resizing option.

The frame viewer can be detached from the main window (See File > Preferences). In case on 2 simultaneous players the frame viewers will be automatically detached from the main window.

For every second of the media file the frames are extracted by BORIS with the embedded ffmpeg program and are saved in the FFmpeg cache directory specified in the Preferences window.

Exporting events data

The coded events can be exported in various formats:

Export events

Observations > Export events

This function will export the events of selected observations in TSV, CSV, ODS, XLSX, XLS or HTML formats. If many observations are selected BORIS will ask for a directory to save the various files. These formats are suitable for further analysis.

example of exported events in TSV format

Warning

Please note that for some formats (XLS - Excel 97) the name of the sheet will be based a modified observation id in order to not contain forbidden characters (: / ? * [ or ]) and shortened to 31 characters.

Export aggregated events

Observations > Export aggregated events

This function will export the events of the selected observations in the following formats:

  • tabular format (TSV, CSV, XLSX, XLS, ODS, HTML)
  • SQL format for populating a SQL database
  • SDIS format for analysis with the GSEQ program available at http://www2.gsu.edu/~psyrab/gseq

If many observations are selected you can choose to group all results in one file. If you do not want to group results BORIS will ask for a directory to save the various files.

The State events are paired and the duration is available.

Example of tabular export

example of aggregated and exported events in TSV format

Example of SQL export:

CREATE TABLE events (id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY ASC, observation TEXT,
                     date DATE, subject TEXT, behavior TEXT,
                     modifiers TEXT, event_type TEXT, start FLOAT,
                     stop FLOAT, comment_start TEXT,
                     comment_stop TEXT);

INSERT INTO events (observation, date, subject, behavior, modifiers,
 event_type, start, stop, comment_start, comment_stop ) VALUES
("demo #1","2015-11-30 10:39:18","Subj #1","jump","","POINT",116.588,0,"",""),
("demo #1","2015-11-30 10:39:18","Subj #1","jump","","POINT",118.988,0,"",""),
("demo #1","2015-11-30 10:39:18","Subj #1","eat","salad","STATE",4.3,10.0,"vvv",""),
("demo #1","2015-11-30 10:39:18","Subj #2","jump","","POINT",120.863,0,"",""),
("demo #1","2015-11-30 10:39:18","Subj #2","jump","","POINT",122.438,0,"",""),
("demo #1","2015-11-30 10:39:18","Subj #2","eat","meat","STATE",26.6,113.988,"","");

Warning

Please note that for some formats (XLS - Excel 97) the name of the sheet will be based a modified observation id in order to not contain forbidden characters (: / ? * [ or ]) and shortened to 31 characters.

Export events for analysis with JWatcher

JWatcher is a powerful tool for the quantitative analysis of behavior.

The events coded with BORIS can be exported to be analyzed with JWatcher.

Click Observations > Export events > for analysis with JWatcher to export the coded events.

BORIS will ask for selecting a directory. After this, for each combination of selected observation and selected subject the following files will be created:

  • the Focal Data File (.dat)
  • the Focal Analysis Master File (.faf)
  • the Focal Master File (.fmf)

These files can be used to analyze your observations with JWatcher.

Export events as behavioral strings

Behavioral strings can be used with the Behatrix program: Behatrix (formerly BSA)

Example:

# observation id: demo#1
# observation description:
# Media file name: video1.mp4, video2.mp4


Subject #1:
eat|jump|eat|jump

Subject #2:
eat|rest|jump|eat|jump

Export events as Praat TextGrid

Example:

File type = "ooTextFile"
Object class = "TextGrid"

xmin = 4.3
xmax = 113.988
tiers? <exists>
size = 2
item []:
    item [1]:
        class = "IntervalTier"
        name = "Subject #1"
        xmin = 4.3
        xmax = 10.0
        intervals: size = 1
        intervals [1]:
            xmin = 4.3
            xmax = 10.0
            text = "eat"
    item [2]:
        class = "IntervalTier"
        name = "Subject #2"
        xmin = 26.6
        xmax = 113.988
        intervals: size = 1
        intervals [1]:
            xmin = 26.6
            xmax = 113.988
            text = "eat"

Extract sequences from media files

Sequences of media file corresponding to coded events can be extracted from media files:

  1. Click on Observations > Extract events from media files option.
  2. Choose the observation(s).
  3. Select the events to be extracted.
  4. Select a destination directory that will contain the extracted sequences.
  5. Select a time offset (in seconds, the default value is 0).

The time offset will be substracted from the starting time of event and added to the stopping time. All the extracted sequences will be saved in the selected directory followind the file name format:

{observation id}_{player}_{subject}_{behavior}_{start time}-{stop time}

Export transitions matrix

3 transitions matrix outputs are available: The matrix of frequencies of transitions, the matrix of frequencies of transition after each behavior and the matrix of number of transitions.

Matrix of frequencies of transitions

This matrix contains the frequencies of total transitions. The sum of all frequencies must be 1.

Example of frequencies of transitions matrix:

           eat   sleep     walk
eat        0.0   0.286    0.143
sleep    0.143     0.0    0.143
walk     0.286     0.0      0.0

In this matrix you can see that the eat behavior precedes the sleep behavior with a frequency of 0.286 of the total number of transitions.

Matrix of frequencies of transitions after behavior

This matrix contains the frequencies of transitions after each behavior. The sum of each row must be 1.

Example:

        eat    sleep     walk
eat     0.0    0.667    0.333
sleep   0.5      0.0      0.5
walk    1.0      0.0      0.0

In this example you can see that sleep follows eat with a frequency of 0.667 and walk follows with a frequency of 0.333.

Matrix of number of transitions

This matrix contains the number of transitions after each behavior.

Example:

        eat   sleep   walk
eat       0       2      1
sleep     1       0      1
walk      2       0      0

Playback menu

Jump

Jump forward

Allow to jump forward in the current media file. See File > Preferences for setting the jump value.

Jump backward

Allow to jump backward in the current media file. See File > Preferences for setting the jump value.

Jump to specific time

Allow to go to a specific time in the current media file.

Zoom

Allow to zoom into the current video file. The available zoom values are: 1:2, 1:4, 2:1 and 1:1. Fit to window adapts the zoom value to the current window size. In case of simultaneous playing you can set different values of zoom in player #1 and player #2.

The Zoom option is not available in frame-by-frame mode.

The Zoom function is not working on Mac

Tools

Geometric measurements

Geometric measurements can only be made in frame-by-frame mode. Distances, areas and angles can be measured. Click on Tools > Geometric measurements to activate the measurements. The Measurements window will be shown:

measurements window

Setting the scale

For distance and area measurements you can set a scale in order to have results of measurements in a real unit (like centimeters, meters etc). 1) measure a reference object (that have a known size) on the frame (with the distance tool. See next chapter for details) and set the pixel distance in the Pixel text box. 2) Set the real size of the reference object in the Reference text box (must be a number without unit).

Distance measurements

Select the Distance radio button. Click the left mouse button on the frame bitmap to set the start of the segment that will be measured. A blue circle with a cross will be drawn. Click the right mouse button to set the end. A red circle with a cross will be drawn. The distance between the two selected points will be available in the text area of the Measurements window.

distance measurement screenshot

Area measurements

Select the Area radio button. Click the left mouse button on the frame bitmap to set the area vertices. Blue circles with a cross will be drawn. Click the right mouse button to close the area. The area of the drawn polygon will be available in the text area of the Measurements window.

Angle measurements

Select the Angle radio button. Click the left mouse button on the frame bitmap to set the angle vertex. A red circle with a cross will be drawn. Click the right mouse button to set the two segments. Blue circles with a cross will be drawn. The angle between the two drawn segments will be available in the text area of the Measurements window.

Persistent measurements

If the Measurements are persistent checkbox is checked the measurement schemes will be available on all frames otherwise they will be deleted between frames.

Coding pad

During observation a coding pad with the available behaviors can be displayed (Tools > Coding pad). This Coding pad allows the user to code using a touch-screen or by clicking on the buttons. When the Coding pad is displayed you can continue to code using the keyboard or the ethogram.

Coding pad

Converters for external data values

Converters can be written using the Python 3 programming language.

The INPUT variable will be loaded with the original value of the external data file (for example 01:22:32).

The OUPUT variable must contain the converted value in seconds (the dot must be used for decimal separator).

Example of a converter for converting HH.MM:SS format in seconds:

h, m, s = INPUT.split(':')
OUTPUT = int(h) * 3600 + int(m) * 60 + int(s)

The Python function strptime() from the datetime module can be useful for converting time values: https://docs.python.org/3/library/datetime.html#strftime-strptime-behavior

Example of a converter for converting ISO8601 format in seconds using the strptime() function:

import datetime
epoch = datetime.datetime.utcfromtimestamp(0)
datetime_format = "%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%SZ"

OUTPUT = (datetime.datetime.strptime(INPUT, datetime_format) - epoch).total_seconds()

File > Edit project > Converters tab

writing/modifiying a converter

Transitions flow diagram

BORIS can generate DOT scripts and flow diagrams from the transitions matrices (See Observations > Create transition matrix for obtaining the transitions matrices).

DOT script (Graphviz language)

Tools > Transitions flow diagram > Create transitions DOT script

Choose one ore more transitions matrix files and BORIS will create the relative DOT script file(s).

The DOT script files can then be used with Graphviz (Graph Visualization Software) or WebGraphviz (Graphviz in the Browser) to generate flow diagram of transitions.

See DOT (graph description language) for details.

Flow diagram

If Graphviz (Graph Visualization Software) is installed on your system (and the dot program available in the path) BORIS can generate flow diagram (PNG format) from a transitions matrix file.

Tools > Transitions flow diagram > Create transitions flow diagram

Choose one ore more transition matrix files and BORIS will create the relative flow diagram.

Flow diagram of frequencies of transitions

Frequencies of transitions

Flow diagram of frequencies of transitions after behavior

Frequencies of transitions after behavior

Flow diagram of number of transitions

Number of transitions

Re-encoding and resizing a video file

BORIS can re-encode and resize your video files in order to reduce the size of the files and have a smooth coding (specially with two video files playing together). The re-encoding and resizing operations are done with the embedded ffmpeg program with high quality parameters (bitrate 2000k).

Select the files you want re-encode and resize and select the horizontal resolution in pixels (the default is 1024). The aspect ratio will be maintained.

You can continue to use BORIS during the re-encoding/resizing operation.

The re-encoded/resized video files are renamed by adding the re-encoded.avi extension to the original files.

warning

The MTS video files should be re-encoded to be used in frame-by-frame mode. Otherwise the extracted frames are not reliable.

Project server

This function allow you to communicate with the BORIS App by sending project and receiving onservations made with the BORIS App. For details read the BORIS App user guide

Starting the project server

  • Open your project
  • Select File > Project server

A window will open and show you the URL of the server that should be used on the BORIS App. The project server will serve the project for 30 minutes.

Stopping the project server

  • Select File > Stop serving project

Coding map

A coding map is a bitmap image with user-defined clickable areas that will help to code for behaviors or modifiers for a behavior.

2 types of coding maps are available:

  • Behaviors coding map
  • Modifiers coding map

The Behaviors coding map

BORIS allows creating a Behaviors coding map using the Map creator tool (Tools > Create a coding map > for behaviors).

A Behaviors coding map can be created only if you have defined behaviors in your ethogram.

Creating a Behaviors coding map

To create a new Behaviors coding map launch the Behaviors coding map creator

Tools > Create a coding map > for behaviors).

A new window will open

Behaviors coding map

File > New behaviors coding map

Enter a name for the new Behaviors coding map

Behaviors coding map name
Loading a bitmap for a behaviors coding map

Click the Load bitmap button in the bottom of the window and select a bitmap image (PNG and JPEG formats are accepted).

If the size of your bitmap image is bigger than 640 x 640 pixels BORIS will resize it to 640 x 640 pixels keeping the aspect ratio and store the resized version in the coding map file.

The bitmap will be displayed

Behaviors coding map
Adding areas corresponding the behaviors

Click the New behavior area button in the bottom of the window and select a behavior by clicking on the Select behavior button.

Behaviors coding map

The available behaviors are taken from the ethogram of the current project.

Click on the bitmap to define the vertex on the area that will code the selected behavior. Close the area by clicking again on the first point.

The color of the new area can be changed using the Opacity button. The opacity can be changed (from 0 to 100%) using the slider.

Save the behavior area by clicking on the Save the behavior area button

The area will be added to the Defined area list

You can add more area and also add more than one area for a same behavior. Two or more areas can overlap. In this case all corresponding behaviors will be triggered.

Behaviors coding map
Add the Behaviors coding map to the current project

File > Add coding map to project

The coding map will be added to the current project

You can add a Behaviors coding map to the current project from a file containing the coding map:

(File > Edit project > Behaviors coding map > Add a behaviors coding map )

Saving the Behaviors coding map

Saving the Behaviors coding map will create a file containing the Behaviors coding map including the bitmap image.

File > Save the current Behaviors coding map

The file containing the Behaviors coding map can be then reloaded in the Behaviors coding map creator or added to a BORIS project (File > Edit project > Behaviors coding map > Add a behaviors coding map )

The Modifiers coding map

BORIS allows creating a modifiers coding map using the Modifiers Map creator tool (Tools > Create a coding map > for modifiers.) Clickable areas may correspond to specific modifiers that can be meaningful for the behavioral coding. Facial expression is the case we thought to when developing this function.

Creating a modifiers coding map

Loading a bitmap for a modifiers coding map

To create a new Modifiers coding map, launch the Modifiers Map creator tool (Tools > Create a coding map > for modifiers). The BORIS main window will be replaced by the Modifiers Map creator window. Click on Modifiers Map creator > New Modifiers map and enter a name for the new map in the edit box. You have to load a bitmap image (JPEG or PNG) using the Load bitmap button. The loaded image will be displayed.

Coding map

If the size of your bitmap image is bigger than 640 x 640 pixels BORIS will resize it to 640 x 640 pixels keeping the aspect ratio and store the resized version in the coding map file.

Adding areas corresponding to the modifiers

To create clickable areas on a coding map, you have to click on the New area button and enter an Area code in the edit box. The new area can now be defined by clicking on the image. The drawing tool allows defining a irregular polygon (a plane shape with straight sides, which does not have all sides equal and all angles equal) by clicking to determine subsequent vertices. It can be convex or concave. Straight sides must not cross each other. Once selected an area can be deleted using the Delete area button. When an area is closed and its name has been defined in the Area code field, it can be saved by using the Save area button. The areas can partially overlap each other. See the Using a Coding map section for more details. Once all areas are added the entire map can be saved using the Save map option menu (Map creator > Save map). The map is now saved in its own file (.boris_map) which is NOT part of the BORIS project. A map can be edited at anytime by opening the map file from the Open map menu option (Map creator > Open map).

Adding a modifiers coding map to your project

Creating a Coding map is not automatically adding the map to your project. The Coding map have to be added to your project by selecting the corresponding Behavior type (Point event with coding map, State event with coding map). BORIS will ask to select the file name containing the coding map (.boris_map) and load the coding map in the project. The coding map name will appear in the Coding map column and will be saved in the BORIS project file.

NOTE: If you later modify your coding map you must reload the new version in your BORIS project.

Analysis

Time budget

The Time budget analysis can be done by behavior (including or not the modifiers) or by category of behaviors. Choose the option from the Analysis menu.

The Time budget analysis can be done on one or more observations. If you select more than one observation you must then choose for a global time budget analysis that will contain all selected observations or a time budget analysis for every single observation.

Group observations

Choose Yes to group all observations in one time budget analysis

The Analysis > Time budget menu option shows the time budget for the events of the selected observations. Select the subjects and behaviors you want to include in the time budget analysis:

Select subject and behaviors for time budget analysis

All behaviors can be selected or unselected by clicking on the Category (bold).

You can choose to include or not the behavior modifiers in the Time budget analysis and to exclude behaviors without coded events.

The Time budget analysis can be restricted to a part of the observation:

  • Full observation(s): the analysis will be made on the full observation length.
  • Limit to time interval: use the Start time and End time boxes to select starting time and ending time.
  • Limit to observed events: the analysis will be made from the first observed event to the last observed event.

The last dialog window will allow you to subtract the duration of one or more behaviors from the total duration of the observation. This can help you if you have defined a “out-of-sight” code in your ethogram for example:

subtract behavior from the total duration

The results contain for each subject and behavior the total nuber of occurrences, the total duration (for the behaviors defined as state events), The duration mean (for the behaviors defined as state events), the standard deviation of duration, the inter-events intervals duration mean, th standard deviation of the inter-events intervals duration and the percent of total duration of observation(s). All duration times are expressed in seconds (s).

Results of the time budget analysis

The time budget results can be saved in various formats for further analysis: * Plain text files: TSV, CSV or HTML * Spreadsheets: Open Document (ODS), Microsoft Excel (XLSX) and Legacy Microsoft (XLS)

Note

If a STATE behavior has an odd number of coded events, BORIS will report “UNPAIRED” instead of results”

Synthetic time budget

The synthetic time budget is similar to time budget but with fewer parameters and a different organization of results. Results of all selected observations are organized in columns on a single page. Two parameters are provided for now: number of occurrences and total duration (for the behaviors defined as state events)

Results of the time budget analysis

All duration times are expressed in seconds (s).

The time budget results can be saved in various formats for further analysis: * Plain text files: TSV, CSV or HTML * Spreadsheets: Open Document (ODS), Microsoft Excel (XLSX) and Legacy Microsoft (XLS)

Plot events

The coded events from many observations can be plotted along a time axis.

Analysis > Plot events

The subjects and behaviors you want to include in the plot can be selected in the following window:

Time budget

You can choose to include or not the behavior modifiers (if any) and to exclude behaviors without coded events.

The time interval can be selected (See time budget)

The plot can be exported in various formats like bitmap (PNG, JPG, TIFF) or vectorial graphic (SVG, PDF, EPS, PS). The SVG format can be further edited with the Inkscape vector graphics editor.

Note

If a STATE behavior has an odd number of coded events, you will see this error message: “The STATE behavior XXX is not paired”

This function creates one plot by subject on one figure.

The color of behaviors can be customized. See plot colors

plot events

Inter-rater reliability

The Cohen’s kappa coefficient can be calculated (Analysis > Inter-rater reliability > Cohen’s kappa).

Cohen’s kappa on Wikipedia

After selecting 2 observations and a time window (in seconds) for the analysis (the default value is 10 seconds) the Cohen’s kappa will be displayed in the results window.

time window

Preferences

You can customize BORIS using the Preferences window (File > Preferences)

General preferences

Preferences first tab
Default project time format
This option allows the user to choose the format for displaying time in the project. Please note that time is internally always saved in seconds with a precision of 3 decimal digits
Fast forward/backward speed (seconds)
This option allows the user to customize the amount of time for “jumping” forward or backward in media.
Time offset for media reposition (seconds)
This value indicates the time offset for repositioning the media after double-click on a row event of the Events table. ‘for example -4 seconds indicates that after a double-click the media will be repositioned 4 seconds before the recorded event.’
Playback speed step value
This value indicate how much the speed will be increased or decreased after pressing the change playback speed buttons.
Automatic backup every (minutes)
if set BORIS will save your project automatically every n minutes. 0 indicate no automatic backup.
Play sound when a key is pressed
Activate a sound signal after every keypress event
Embed media player
This option allows the user to detach from the main window or embed the media player in the main window. On Mac OS the media player can not be detached from main window.
Alert if focal subject is not set
If this option is activated BORIS will show an alert box if no focal subject is selected
Tracking cursor above current event
Check this box to position the tracking cursor above the current event in events list table.
Check for new version
Check for new version on BORIS web site every 15 days (internet access required)

FFmpeg framework

Preferences FFmpeg framework tab

The path for the ffmpeg executable program is displayed. The FFmpeg executable is now included with BORIS in Windows and Mac OS versions.

FFmpeg cache directory
This indicates the directory that will be used as image cache for frame-by-frame mode and spectrogram visualization. If you do not specify a path, BORIS will use the default temporary directory of your system.
FFmpeg cache directory max size
Indicate a size limit (in Mb) for the image caching. 0 indicates no limit

Frame-by-frame mode

Preferences FFmpeg framework tab

Resize frame

In case of high resolution video (for example 4K 1920x1080) the extracted frames can be resized before visualization to improve the speed. Select the width in pixel for the extracted frames. The aspect ratio will be maintained. 0 will indicate no frame resizing.

Frame bitmap format

A bitmap format can be selected between JPG (JPEG low quality image) and PNG (Portable Network Graphic - high quality image). The extracted frames will be saved in the directory defined in previous tab (FFmpeg cache directory).

Cache size

In frame-by-frame mode the frames are extracted from the video with the ffmpeg program every second by default.

This value can be increased to extract frames for a longer sequence and avoiding waiting for frames extraction every second.

Note for high resolution video this operation can be long.

Detaching the frame viewer

The frame viewer can be detached from the main window. Please note that in case of two simultaneous media files the frames viewers will be detached.

Spectrogram

Preferences Spectrogram tab

Spectrogram height

Select the height of generated spectrogram (in pixels). You will need to restart the current observation to apply changes.

Color map

Select the color map for displaying the generated spectrogram. See Matplotlib colormaps for details.

Plot colors

The color of behaviors in the plot events functions can be customized. The first color will be associated to the first behavior in your ethogram, the second color to the second behavior and so on. Various color formats can be used to specify a color: named color or hex RGB (like #0F0F0F). See https://matplotlib.org/api/colors_api.html and https://matplotlib.org/examples/color/named_colors.html for details

The reset colors to default button will reload the default colors.

Plot colors tab

Various

Removing path of media files

Using BORIS you can choose to store the full path of the media files into the file project (for example: /home/user/Video/video_n1.mp4 or c:\Users\user\Documents\video1.avi).

If you want to move your project on a different computer or if you want to move your media files you may want to do not store the full path. For this you can choose to add media files without the full path (See Add media files section). You can also remove the full path of your media files from the all observations of the current project (File > Remove path from media files. Please note that this operation is irreversible. After remotion the full path of your media will be lost and will not be recoverable.

If you choose to do not store the full path of media files the media files must located in the same directory than your BORIS project file.

Docking

All elements, including all the media players can be undocked from the main window and positioned where you prefer (e.g. they can be on the same desktop over one or two screens).

Undocked widgets

Citing BORIS

If you have used BORIS for publications, please cite:

Olivier Friard and Marco Gamba. (2016) BORIS: a free, versatile open-source
event-logging software for video/audio coding and live observations.
Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 7(11), 1324-1330
DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12584

Bug reports and features request

Please send bug reports and features request using the BORIS GitHub repository (https://github.com/olivierfriard/BORIS) or by e-mail in english, french or italian (see web site http://www.boris.unito.it/pages/about.html).

In case of bug report please verify that you are using the last version of BORIS and indicate your operating system, its version and the CPU architecture (32/64 bits). You may also include the BORIS project that gave you an error. Any information you will provide will not be disclosed to any third party.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to acknowledge Sergio Castellano, Valentina Matteucci and Laura Ozella for their precious help.

Valid keys for triggering behavior

BORIS make difference between lower case and upper case characters

  • keys from a to z
  • keys from A to Z
  • keys from 0 to 9
  • function keys from F1 to F12
  • à é è ù ì ç
  • ! ” £ $ % & / ( ) = ? ^ [ ] @ | § ° #